Tag - termination

Standards to Observe in Alleging Offenses in the Notice to Explain

Issuance of the Notice to Explain (NTE) is one of the steps required in employee dismissal. At least, insofar as avoiding payment of indemnity is concerned for violation of procedural due process. Not observing the proper NTE may also impress upon the tribunal the haphazard nature of the employer in issuing such legal requirement. The last thing that an employer, as respondent in a case, wants is to have a wrong impression in the eyes of the labor tribunal. So, [...]

Redundancy Scheme is Ineffective if there is no Power to Terminate Services

Redundancy is one of the grounds to terminate services under authorized cause in Article 298 of the Labor Code, as amended. Termination letter is usually signed by the individual holding the authority to execute the act. However, in the case of Alfredo American Power Conversion Corporation, et al. vs. Lim, G.R. No. 214291, January 11, 2018, the Supreme Court held, in part, that the termination is ineffective where there is no authority to effect redundancy. In this case, the employee, [...]

Retrenchment of Employees and Criteria Employed

Retrenchment is the termination of employment effected by management during periods of business recession, industrial depression, seasonal fluctuations, lack of work or considerable reduction in the volume of the employer’s business. Resorted to by an employer to avoid or minimize business losses. It is a reduction in manpower, a measure utilized by an employer to minimize business losses incurred in the operation of its business. (Philippine Carpet Employees Association [PHILCEA] vs. Hon. Sto. Tomas, G.R. No. 168719, February 22, [...]

Resigned Employees are not Entitled to Separation Pay

Resignation is provided under Art. 300 of the Labor Code. There is nothing in such article that mandates the payment of separation pay to resigned employee. In a case of Italkarat 18, Inc. vs. Gerasmio, (G.R. No. 221411, September 28, 2020), the Supreme Court held that as a general rule, the law does not require employers to pay employees that have resigned any separation pay, unless there is a contract that provides otherwise or there exists a company practice [...]

Redundancy Program Requisites for Validity

Redundancy exists when the service capability of the workforce is in excess of what is reasonably needed to meet the demands of the business enterprise. A position is redundant where it had become superfluous. Superfluity of a position or positions may be the outcome of a number of factors such as over-hiring of workers, decrease in volume of business, or dropping a particular product line or service activity previously manufactured or undertaken by the enterprise. (3M Philippines, Inc. vs. [...]

Valid Termination due to Redundancy

For purposes of the Labor Code, redundancy exists where the services of an employee are in excess of what is reasonably demanded by the actual requirements of the enterprise. Succinctly put, a position is redundant where it is superfluous, and superfluity of a position or positions may be the outcome of a number of factors, such as over hiring of workers, decreased volume of business, or dropping of a particular product line or service activity previously manufactured or undertaken [...]

Burden of Proof in Termination Due to Authorized Cause

The authorized causes under Article 298 are as follows: Installation of labor-saving devices; Redundancy; Retrenchment; and Closure or cessation of business operations of an establishment or an undertaking. It appears that the enumeration is exclusive. Meaning, there can be no other grounds that can be invoked other than those stated. This is so because the precursor of Article 298, Article 299, previously carried a comprehensive phrase “other similar causes” which was repeated twice in the old provision. While in the new provision as presently [...]

Termination Due to Authorized Cause

Article 298 of the Labor Code, as amended, provides causes which are grounds for the termination of employees. It is one of the authorized causes for termination. Thus: “Art. 298. Closure of establishment and re- duction of personnel. The employer may also terminate the employment of any employee due to the installation of labor- saving devices, redundancy, retrenchment to prevent losses or the closing or cessation of operation of the establishment or undertaking unless the closing is for the purpose of [...]

Criminal Aspects of Incidents Leading to Loss of Trust and Confidence

Loss of trust and confidence is one of the grounds for dismissal of employees under the Labor Code. This may arise from incidents of fraud, theft, etc. which are criminal in nature. The question is what would be the effect of the criminal aspects on the labor dispute stemming from loss of trust and confidence? The violation of company policy may involve a criminal act for which the employee may be charged by the employer in a criminal court. Non-conviction [...]

Loss of Trust and Confidence Applies to Confidential Employees

There are rank-and-file employees who hold highly confidential positions due to their fiduciary responsibilities and proximity to the management that makes important decisions pertaining to labor relations. In one of my clients’ organizational setup, an employee who used to be a holder of supervisory position being an assistant to the SVP for Marketing was demoted to rank-and-file status. But he was classified as a confidential employee. This kind of confidential employee is not a holder of a trusted position [...]

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