Tag - nlrc

Transfer and Constructive Dismissal when Merges as Issues in an Illegal Dismissal Complaint

Complaint for constructive / illegal dismissal based on claim of illegal transfer usually faces the clash of two sets of different burden of proof. That is, burden on the employer side (in case of proving validity of transfer) and burden on the side of employee (to prove the fact of dismissal in a claim of constructive dismissal). A transfer is a “movement from one position to another which is of equivalent rank, level or salary, without break in service.” Promotion, [...]

General Manager of a Cooperative may not be an Employee

Is the General Manager of a cooperative an employee? When he files a labor complaint will the Labor Arbiter have jurisdiction over it? In the case of Ellao vs. Batangas I Electric Cooperative Inc. (BATELEC I) (835 Phil. 914 (2018)), Ellao was appointed as General Manager of the cooperative. Ellao committed irregularities while in office and was terminated from employment through a board resolution. Ellao then filed a complaint for illegal dismissal before the labor tribunals, which assumed jurisdiction over the [...]

Execution of the Compromise Agreement does not Necessarily Bar Liability for Claims

Waivers and quitclaims executed by employees are generally frowned upon for being contrary to public policy. This is based on the recognition that employers and employees do not stand on equal footing. [Aldovino vs. Gold and Green Manpower Management and Development Services, Inc., G.R. No. 200811, June 19, 2019] In Land and Housing Development Corporation vs. Esquillo, the Supreme Court (SC) held that the reason why quitclaims are commonly frowned upon as contrary to public policy, and why they are [...]

Verbal Dismissal and its Probative Weight in Labor Cases

An employer may be sued before the National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC) for illegal dismissal involving claims of verbal dismissal. How will the labor court appreciate the allegation of verbal dismissal? In the case of Nuda vs. LGTM Corporation, Inc. (G.R. No. 245835, March 22, 2023), the Supreme Court held that before there can be a finding of illegal dismissal, the fact of dismissal must first be proved by the employee. Indeed, in illegal dismissal cases, the burden of proof is [...]

Effects if Motion for Reconsideration is Filed instead of Appeal from the Decision of the Labor Arbiter

In labor case, one of the parties may receive an adverse decision or order of the Labor Arbiter. In such case, what is the remedy? While most of the respondents in a labor case are represented by a counsel, there are those who undertake labor litigation on their own or without a lawyer. Considering that technical requirements of the procedure, mistake may be committed along the way. One of the critical steps in labor litigation where mistake may be committed is [...]

Illegal Dismissal Case is a Command on Employer to make Public Reparation hence Prescribes in Four Years

Although illegal dismissal is a violation of the Labor Code, it is not the “offense” contemplated in Article 305 [formerly Article 290] of the Labor Code. [Arriola vs. Pilipino Star Ngayon, Inc., G.R. No. 175689. August 13, 2014] Article 305 refers to illegal acts penalized under the Labor Code, including committing any of the prohibited activities during strikes or lockouts, unfair labor practices, and illegal recruitment activities.  The three-year prescriptive period under Article 305, therefore, does not apply to complaints [...]

Quick Overview of the Differences among DOLE, NLRC, NCMB, and BLR

Most HR practitioners, employees, managers, and business owners are confused about the relationship of the DOLE, NLRC, NCMB, and BLR. They cannot be blamed considering that only a few practitioners understand the scope, jurisdiction, and functions of each government office. DOLE stands for Department of Labor and Employment. NLRC stands for National Labor Relations Commission, NCMB stands for National Conciliation and Mediation Board, and the BLR stands form Bureau of Labor Relations. The DOLE is the national government agency mandated to formulate [...]

Exemplary Damages in Labor Cases

Exemplary or corrective damages are imposed, by way of example or correction for the public good, in addition to the moral, temperate, liquidated or compensatory damages. [Article 2229, Civil Code] Further, the Civil Code provides for the rules concerning the award of exemplary damages. In Article 2229 it states that exemplary or corrective damages are imposed, by way of example or correction for the public good, in addition to the moral, temperate, liquidated or compensatory damages. While in Article 2232 it [...]

Employer Employee Relationship Issue in a Labor Dispute

While the Labor Arbiter (LA) has no jurisdiction over dispute that does not arise from employer-employee relationship, the determination of whether such relationship exists lies with the LA also. In the case of Atok Big Wedge Company, Inc. vs. Gison (G.R. No. 169510, August 8, 2011), the Supreme Court (SC) held that well-entrenched is the doctrine that the existence of an employer-employee relationship is ultimately a question of fact and that the findings thereon by the Labor Arbiter and the [...]

Burden of Proof in Constructive Dismissal

Burden of proof is the standard required in proving a case. In cases of constructive dismissal, the burden of proof is on the employer to show that the employee was dismissed for a valid and a just cause. (Suldao vs. Cimech System Construction, Inc., G.R. No. 171392, October 30, 2006.) This means that if the employee claims he was constructively dismissed from service and sues the employer, it is the employer who must prove that the employee was not dismissed from [...]

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